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The 3 Cs of Antibiotic Allergy-Classification, Cross-Reactivity, and Collaboration.

Trubiano JA, Stone CA, Lindsay Grayson M, Urbancic K, Slavin MA, Thursky KA, Phillips EJ.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Aug 23. pii: S2213-2198(17)30501-9. 

Abstract

Antibiotic allergy labeling is highly prevalent and negatively impacts patient outcomes and antibiotic appropriateness. Reducing the prevalence and burden of antibiotic allergies requires the engagement of key stakeholders such as allergists, immunologists, pharmacists, and infectious diseases physicians. To help address this burden of antibiotic allergy overlabeling, we review 3 key antibiotic allergy domains: (1) antibiotic allergy classification, (2) antibiotic cross-reactivity, and (3) multidisciplinary collaboration. We review the available evidence and research gaps of currently used adverse drug reaction classification systems, antibiotic allergy cross-reactivity, and current and future models of antibiotic allergy care.

Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cytomegalovirus Reactivation Is Associated with Increased Risk of Late-Onset Invasive Fungal Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Study in the Current Era of Viral Load Monitoring.

Yong MK, Ananda-Rajah M, Cameron PU, Morrissey CO, Spencer A, Ritchie D, Cheng AC, Lewin SR, Slavin M.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017 Aug 7. pii: S1083-8791(17)30621-3. 

Abstract

Opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and invasive fungal disease (IFD) cause significant morbidity and mortality to recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We aimed to characterize the risk and relationship of CMV reactivation post-HSCT to IFD in the current era of CMV viral load monitoring using highly sensitive plasma DNA. A multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was conducted of consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT from January 2006 to December 2010 in Melbourne, Australia. CMV reactivation was defined as detection of plasma CMV DNA ≥ 546 IU/mL or development of CMV disease. IFD was classified in accordance with current international consensus guidelines. Of the 419 study participants, the median age was 44 years (IQR, 34 to 54), and CMV reactivation occurred in 106 participants (25%) at a median time of 56 days (IQR, 45 to 79). Thirty-eight participants (9.1%) were identified with 41 cases of IFD (n = 22 proven, n = 8 probable, n = 11 possible) at a median time of 76 days (IQR, 24 to 344). The incidence of IFD was higher in participants with CMV reactivation compared with no CMV reactivation (15% versus 7%, P = .012). In a multivariate analysis CMV reactivation remained an independent risk factor for IFD (hazard ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6% to 8.5%; P = .002). The cumulative incidence of all IFD in patients with and without CMV reactivation using a competing risk regression was a hazard ratio of 2.2 (95% CI, 1.2 to 4.1; P = .017) and for late-onset IFD was a hazard ratio of 3.95 (95% CI, 1.7 to 9; P = .001). The median time to IFD onset was longer in participants with than without CMV reactivation (184 versus 37 days, P = .03). The peak viral load, detection of any level of viremia, and experiencing more than 1 episode of CMV reactivation were not associated with development of IFD. CMV reactivation in HSCT recipients in the post-transplant period is associated with an increased risk of developing late-onset IFD. Further research is warranted to understand the interaction between these 2 important infectious complications.

Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Candida and invasive mould diseases in non-neutropenic critically ill patients and patients with haematological cancer.

Colombo AL, de Almeida Júnior JN, Slavin MA, Chen SC, Sorrell TC.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 31. pii: S1473-3099(17)30304-3. 

Abstract

Critically ill patients and patients with haematological cancer are HIV-negative populations at high risk of invasive fungal infections. In intensive-care units, candidaemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis predominate, but aspergillosis has emerged as a lethal, under-recognised cause of pneumonia. In patients with haematological malignancies or who have undergone stem-cell transplantations, pulmonary disease due to aspergillus and other mould diseases predominate. In this Series paper, we provide an update on risk assessment, new diagnostic strategies, and therapeutic approaches. New concepts have emerged for use of risk prediction rules and an evidence base now exists for inclusion of biomarkers (eg, galactomannan, 1,3-β-D-glucan, and PCR assays for Aspergillus spp) into early diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Imaging techniques remain helpful for early diagnosis of pulmonary mould diseases, with PET techniques offering potential improvements in diagnostic specificity and evaluation of clinical response. Echinocandins and triazoles have been validated extensively for prophylaxis, empirical therapy, and targeted therapy, but an increase in intrinsically resistant fungi and emergence of secondary resistance as a result of drug-induced selection pressure are of major concern. Echinocandins remain a major component of treatment of invasive candidiasis and new triazoles are the best alternative for prophylaxis and therapy of invasive aspergillosis.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28774702

DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30304-3

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